|A shot in the dark? Policy influence on cluster networks (pdf)|
Graf, H. & Broekel, T. (2020) A shot in the dark? Policy influence on cluster networks, Research Policy, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2019.103920 (pdf)
Cluster policies are often intended and designed to promote interaction in R&D among co-located organisations, as local knowledge interactions are perceived to be underdeveloped. In contrast to the popularity of the policy measure little is known about its impact on knowledge networks, because most scientific evaluations focus on impacts at the firm level. Using the example of the BioRegio contest, we explore cluster policy effects on local patent co-application and co-invention networks observed from 1985 to 2013, in 17 German regions. We find that the initiative increases network size and innovation activities during the funding period but not afterwards. The impact of the BioRegio contest on network cohesion is moderate. In contrast, general project-based R&D subsidisation is found to support cohesion more robustly.
|The relationship of policy induced R&D networks and inter-regional knowledge diffusion (pdf)|
Bednarz, M. & Broekel, T. (2019), The relationship of policy induced R&D networks and inter-regional knowledge diffusion, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00191-019-00621-2 (pdf).
Knowledge diffusion is argued to be strongly influenced by knowledge networks and spatial structures. However, empirical studies primarily apply an indirect approach in measuring their impact. Moreover, little is known about how policy can influence the spatial diffusion of knowledge. This paper seeks to fill this gap by testing empirically the effects of policy induced knowledge networks on the propensity of inter-regional patent citations. We use patent citation data for 141 labor market regions in Germany between 2000 to 2009, which is merged with information on subsidized joint R&D projects. Based on the latter, we construct a network of subsidized R&D collaboration. Its impact on inter-regional patent citations is evaluated with binomial and negative binomial regression models. Our findings do not indicate that inter-regional network links created by public R&D subsidies facilitate patent citations and, hence, inter-regional knowledge diffusion.
|Joint R and D subsidies, related variety, and regional innovation (pdf)|
Broekel, T. and Brachert, M. and Duschl, M. and Brenner, T. (2017), Joint R and D subsidies, related variety, and regional innovation, International Regional Science Review, 40(3): 297-326 (pdf)
Subsidies for research and development (R&D) are an important tool of public R&D policy, which motivates extensive scientific analyses and evaluations. This article adds to this literature by arguing that the effects of R&D subsidies go beyond the extension of organizations’ monetary resources invested into R&D. It is argued that collaboration induced by subsidized joint R&D projects yield significant effects that are missed in traditional analyses. An empirical study on the level of German labor market regions substantiates this claim, showing that collaborative R&D subsidies impact regions’ innovation growth when providing access to related variety and embedding regions into central positions in cross-regional knowledge networks.
|Another cluster premium : Innovation subsidies and R & D collaboration networks (pdf)|
Broekel, T.; Fornahl, D; Morrison, A. (2015), Another cluster premium : Innovation subsidies and R & D collaboration networks. Research Policy, 44(8):1431–1444 (pdf).
This paper investigates the allocation of R&D subsidies with a focus on the granting success of firms located in clusters. On this basis it is evaluated whether firms in these clusters are differently embedded into networks of subsidized R&D collaboration than firms located elsewhere. The theoretical arguments are empirically tested using the example of the German biotechnology firms’ participation in the 6th EU-Framework Programmes and national R&D subsidization schemes in the early 2000s. We show that clusters grant firms another premium to their location, as they are more likely to receive funds from the EU-Framework Programmes and hold more favorable positions in national knowledge networks based on subsidies for joint R&D.
|Do cooperative R&D subsidies stimulate regional innovation efficiency? Evidence from Germany. (pdf)|
Broekel, T. (2015), Do cooperative R&D subsidies stimulate regional innovation efficiency? Evidence from Germany. Regional Studies, 49(7):1087-1110 (pdf).
Do cooperative research and development (R&D) subsidies stimulate regional innovation efficiency? Evidence from Germany, Regional Studies. The subsidization of research and development (R&D) and R&D cooperation has gained in importance in recent years. Building on a rich panel dataset, covering 270 German labour market regions and four industries, it is shown that subsidies for R&D cooperation are a suitable policy measure for stimulating the innovation efficiency of regions. The empirical findings suggest that regions with low innovation capacities benefit the most from cooperation among regional firms and subsidized links to non-regional public research institutes. The subsidization of cooperation with non-regional universities is more important for regions with large innovation capacities. Support for non-cooperative projects is related to negative effects.
|What drives patent performance of German biotech firms? The impact of R&D subsidies, knowledge networks and their location (pdf)|
Fornahl, D. and Broekel, T. and Boschma, R. (2011), What drives patent performance of German biotech firms? The impact of R&D subsidies, knowledge networks and their location. Papers in Regional Science, 90(2): 395-418 (pdf).
This paper aims at explaining whether R&D subsidies, the engagement in collabo- ration networks and the location influence the patent activities of biotech firms in Germany! We demonstrate that R&D subsidies focusing on single firms do not increase patent intensity, while subsidies which are granted to joint R&D projects do so to a certain extent. The number of knowledge links firms have is not influencing performance, but the type of network partners has an effect. We found strong evidence that some but not too much cognitive distance between collaboration partners and being located in a cluster have a positive effect.