Working papers

  1. Broekel, T. & Fitjar, R. & Haus-Reve, S. (2021) The roles of diversity, complexity, and relatedness in regional development – What does the occupational perspective add? Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography #21.35 (pdf)
  2. Gardt, M. & Broekel, T. & Garais P. (2021). Blowing against the winds of change? The relationship between anti- wind initiatives and wind turbines in Germany. Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography #21.19 (pdf)
  3. Broekel, T. & Knuepling, L. & Stenke, G. (2020). Die Zukunftsfähigkeit des Technologieprofils Deutschlands. Policy Paper of the Stifterverband der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Ausgabe 4, 6. Oktober 2020 (pdf)

Articles in peer-reviewed international journals

  1. Gareis, P., & Broekel, T. (2022). The Spatial Patterns of Student Mobility Before, During and After the Bologna Process in Germany. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 0(0), 1–20. (pdf)
  2. Balland, P.-A., Broekel, T., Diodato, D., Giuliani, E., Hausmann, R., O’Clery, N., & Rigby, D. (2022). The new paradigm of economic complexity. Research Policy, 51(3), 104450 (pdf)
  3. Deegan, J., Broekel, T. & Fitjar, R. (2021) Searching through the Haystack The relatedness and complexity of priorities in smart specialisation strategies. Economic Geography,, also available as Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography 21.23 (pdf)
  4. Ozgun, B. & Broekel, T. (2021). The geography of innovation and technology news – An empirical study of the German news media. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 167(February) (pdf)
  5. Mewes, L. & Broekel, T. (2020). Technological Complexity and Economic Growth of Regions. Research Policy, (pdf)
  6. Juhász, S., Broekel, T. & Boschma, R. (2020). Explaining the dynamics of relatedness: the role of co-location and complexity. Papers in Regional Science. (pdf).
  7. von Bloh, J., Broekel, T., Ozgun, B. & Sternberg, R. (2020). New(s) data for entrepreneurship research? An innovative approach to use Big Data on media coverage. Small Business Economics. 55(3): 673-694 (pdf).
  8. Abbasiharofteh, M. & Broekel, T. (2020). Still in the shadow of the wall ? The case of the Berlin biotechnology cluster. Environment and Planning A, 0(0), 1–22. (pdf)
  9. Knuepling, L. & Broekel, T. (2020). Does relatedness drive the diversification of countries’ success in sports ? European Sport Management Quarterly, 0(0), 1–23. (pdf)
  10. Bednarz, M. & Broekel, T. (2020). Pulled or pushed? The spatial diffusion of wind energy between local demand and supply. Industrial and Corporate Change, 29(4), 893–916 (pdf).
  11. Mewes, L. & Broekel, T. (2020). Subsidized to change ? The impact of R & D policy on regional technological diversification. The Annals of Regional Science, 65: 221–252 (pdf)
  12. Graf, H. & Broekel, T. (2020) A shot in the dark? Policy influence on cluster networks, Research Policy, 49(3), (pdf)
  13. Broekel, T. (2019). Using structural diversity to measure the complexity of technologies. PLoS ONE, 14(5), 1–27  (pdf)
  14. Bednarz, M. & Broekel, T. (2019), The relationship of policy induced R&D networks and inter-regional knowledge diffusion Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 29(5): 1459–1481 (pdf)
  15. Broekel, T. & Bednarz, M. (2018), Disentangling link formation and dissolution in spatial networks: An application of a two-mode STERGM to a project-based R&D network in the German biotechnology industry Networks and Spatial Economics, 18(3), 677-704  (pdf)
  16. Gardt, M. & Broekel, T. & Gareis, P. & Litmeyer, M-L (2018), Einfluss von Windenergieanlagen auf die Entwicklung des Tourismus in Hessen, Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, 62(1), (pdf)
  17. Broekel, T., Rogge, N. & Brenner, T. (2018), The innovation efficiency of German regions – a shared-input DEA approach, Review of Regional Research, 38:77-109 (pdf)
  18. Broekel, T. & Mueller, W. (2018), Critical links in knowledge networks – What about proximities and gatekeeper organisations? Industry & Innovation, 25(10):919-939 (pdf)
  19. Roesler, C. & Broekel, T. (2017), The role of universities in a network of subsidized R&D collaboration: The case of the biotechnology-industry in Germany, Review of Regional Research, 37(2):135-160 (pdf)
  20. Menzel, M-P, Broekel, T. & Feldman M-A (2017), Institutional Change and Network Evolution: Explorative and Exploitative Tie Formations of Co-Inventors During the Dot-com Bubble in the Research Triangle Region, Regional Studies, 51(8):1179-1191 (pdf)
  21. Mewes, L. & Broekel, T. (2017), Unrelated und Related Variety im Kontext öffentlicher F&E: empirische Evidenz aus deutschen Arbeitsmarktregionen, Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, 61(1):23-37 (pdf)
  22. Broekel, T., Brachert, M. & Duschl, M. and Brenner, T. (2017), Joint R and D subsidies, related variety, and regional innovation, International Regional Science Review, 40(3): 297-326 (pdf)
  23. Radin, R., Broekel, T., Khanh, T. & Proochista, A. (2016), Analyzing Demand-Side Efficiency in Global Health: An Application to Maternal Care in Vietnam, Health Policy and Planning, 31 (9): 1281-1290 (pdf)
  24. Stuck, J., Broekel, T. & Revilla Diez, J. (2016), Network structures in Regional Innovation Systems, European Planning Studies, 24(3): 423-442 (pdf)
  25. Breul, M., Broekel, T. & Brachert, M. (2015), Die räumliche Evolution der Photovoltaik-Industrie in Deutschland: Emergenz und Clusterung neuer Branchen, Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, 59(3):133-150 (pdf)
  26. Broekel, T. & Alfken, C. (2015), Gone with the wind? The impact of wind turbines on tourism demand, Energy Policy, 86:506-519 (pdf)
  27. Broekel, T. & Brachert, M. (2015), The Structure and Evolution of Intersectoral Technological Complementarity in R&D in Germany from 1990 to 2011, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 25(4):755-785 (pdf)
  28. Broekel, T.; Fornahl, D; Morrison, A. (2015), Another cluster premium : Innovation subsidies and R & D collaboration networks. Research Policy, 44(8):1431–1444 (pdf)
  29. Broekel, T. (2015), The co-evolution of proximities – a network level study. Regional Studies, 49(6):921-935 (pdf)
  30. Broekel, T. (2015), Do cooperative R&D subsidies stimulate regional innovation efficiency? Evidence from Germany. Regional Studies, 49(7):1087-1110 (pdf)
  31. Broekel, T., Buerger, M. & Brenner, T. (2015), An investigation of the relation between cooperation and the innovative success of German regions. Spatial Economic Analysis, 10(1):52-78 (pdf)
  32. Alfken, C. and Broekel, T. and Sternberg, R. (2014), Factors explaining the spatial agglomeration of the Creative Class – Empirical evidence for German artists. European Planning Studies, 23(12):2438-2463 (pdf)
  33. Broekel, T., Balland, P.-A, Burger, M. & van Oort, F. (2014), Modeling knowledge networks in economic geography: A discussion of four empirical strategies. Annals of Regional Science, 53(2): 423-452, DOI:10.1007/s00168-014-0616-2 (pdf)
  34. Broekel, T. & Hartog, M. (2013), Explaining the structure of inter-organizational networks using exponential random graph models Industry and Innovation, 20(3):277-295 (pdf)
  35. Binder, M. and Broekel, T. (2012), The Neglected Dimension of Well-Being: Analyzing the Development of “Conversion Efficiency” in Great Britain.  Journal of Socio-Economics, 41(1): 37-47 (pdf)
  36. Broekel, T. (2012), Collaboration intensity and regional innovation efficiency in Germany – A conditional efficiency approach. Industry and Innovation, 19(3): 155-179 (pdf)
  37. Broekel, T. & Graf, H. (2012), Public research intensity and the structure of German R&D networks: A comparison of ten technologies. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 21(4): 345-372 (pdf)
  38. Binder, M. & Broekel, T. (2011), Happiness no matter the cost? An examination on how efficiently individuals reach their happiness levels. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(4):621-645 (pdf)
  39. Fornahl, D., Broekel, T. & Boschma, R. (2011), What drives patent performance of German biotech firms? The impact of R&D subsidies, knowledge networks and their location. Papers in Regional Science, 90(2): 395-418 (pdf)
  40. Broekel, T. & Boschma, R. (2012), Knowledge Networks in the Dutch Aviation Industry – The Proximity Paradox. Journal of Economic Geography, 12 (2): 409-433 (pdf)
  41. Broekel, T. & Boschma, R. (2011), Aviation, Space or Aerospace? Exploring the knowledge networks of two industries in the Netherlands. European Planning Studies, 19(7): 1205-1227 (pdf)
  42. Binder, M. & Broekel, T. (2011), Applying A Nonparametric Efficiency Analysis to Measure Conversion Efficiency in Great Britain. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 12(2): 257-281 (pdf)
  43. Coad, A. & Broekel, T. (2012), Firm Growth and Productivity Growth: Evidence from a Panel VAR. Applied Economics, 40(12):1251-1269 (pdf)
  44. Brenner, T. & Broekel, T. (2011), Methodological Issues in Measuring Innovation Performance of Spatial Units. Industry and Innovation, 18(11):7:37 (pdf)
  45. Buerger, M., Broekel, T. & Coad, A. (2012), Regional Dynamics of Innovation – Investigating the Co-Evolution of Patents, R&D, and Employment. Regional Studies, 46(5):565-582 (pdf)
  46. Broekel, T. & Brenner, T. (2011), Regional Factors and Innovativeness – An Empirical Analysis of Four German Industries. The Annals of Regional Science, 47(1):169-194 (pdf)
  47. Broekel, T. & M. Binder (2007), The Regional Dimension of Knowledge Transfers: a Behavioral Approach. Industry and Innovation, 14 (2):151-175 (pdf)


  1. Broekel, T. (2016), Wissens- und Innovationsgeographie in der Wirtschaftsförderung – Grundlagen für die Praxis, Springer Gabler, 125 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-658-13934-6 (pdf)

Book chapters

  1. Mewes, L. & Broekel, T. (2020). Der Beitrag von Hochschulen zur Einbindung von Regionen in politisch induzierte Wissensnetzwerke. Forschungsberichte der ARL: Aufsätze, in: Postlep, Rolf-Dieter & Blume, Lorenz & Hülz, Martina (ed.),Hochschulen und ihr Beitrag für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung, volume 11, pages 233-259, ARL – Akademie für Raumentwicklung in der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft (pdf)
  2. Abassiharofteh, M. & Broekel, T. (2019). Toward a comprehensive measure of socio-cultural diversity : the case of Germany. In F. Abassiharofteh, Milad; Baier, Jessica; Göb, Angelina; Thimm, Insa; Eberth, Andreas; Knaps, Falco; Larjosto, Vilja; Zebner (Ed.), Räumliche Transformation – Prozesse, Konzepte, Forschungsdesigns (pp. 93–104). Hannover: Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung (pdf)
  3. Broekel T. & Graf H. (2019) Innovationspolitik und Netzwerke. In: Stember J., Fink A., Pongratz P., Vogelgesang M. (eds) Handbuch Innovative Wirtschaftsförderung. Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden, (pdf)
  4. Broekel, T. & Hartog, M. (2013), Determinants of cross-regional R&D collaboration networks: an application of exponential random graph models. in: The geography of networks and R&D collaborations, Advances in Spatial Science, Springer (pdf).
  5. Witt, U., T. Broekel & T. Brenner (2012), Knowledge and its Economic Characteristics: a Conceptual Clarification. In: R. Arena, A. Festré and N. Lazaric (eds.), Handbook of Economics and Knowledge. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Previously as Jena Economic Research Papers, #2007-013 (pdf).

Articles in national journals

  1. Brökel, T. & Sternberg, R. (2012), Wider die geographisch zu enge Erfassung der Netzwerke deutscher Humangeographen – Kommentar zur Netzwerkanalyse von Steinbrink et al., Berichte zur deutschen Landeskunde 86(4): 369-375 (pdf).
  2. Bennat, T., Broekel, T. & Sternberg, R. (2019), Zur Messung der Nutzung regionaler Potenziale beim Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien. Eine empirische Analyse deutscher Landkreise, Raumforschung und Raumordnung – Spatial Research and Planning

Introductions to special issues

  1. Brenner, T. & Broekel, T. (2019), Evolutionary economics and policy: Introduction to the special issue, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, (pdf).

Articles in none peer-reviewed international journals

  1. Broekel, T. & Boschma, R. (2016), The cognitive and geographical structure of knowledge links and how they influence firms’ innovation performance, Regional Statistics 6(2):3-26 (pdf). Also available as Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, # 11.18 (pdf).
  2. De Silva, N. & Broekel, T. (2016). Farmers’ adoption of new agricultural technology programme in Hambantona district in Sri Lanka: An analysis of constraining factors. Sri Lanka Journal of Business Economics, 6, 1–21.


  1. Broekel, T. (2017), Measuring technological complexity – Current approaches and a new measure of structural complexity Working Paper arXiv:1708.07357 (pdf).
  2. Broekel, T. and Schimke, A. and Brenner, T. (2011), The effects of cooperative R&D subsidies and subsidized cooperation on employment growth. KIT Working Paper Series in Economics, #34 (pdf).
  3. Broekel, T. and Schlump, C. (2009), The Importance of R&D Subsidies and Technological Infrastructure for Regional Innovation Performance – A Conditional Efficiency Approach. Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, #09.21 (pdf).
  4. Broekel, T. (2008), From Average to the Frontier: A Nonparametric Frontier Approach to the Analysis of Externalities and Regional Innovation Performance. Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, #08.04 (pdf).
  5. Broekel, T. and Brenner, T. (2007), Measuring Regional Innovativeness: a Methodological Discussion andan Application to One German Industry. DIME Working Papers, RAL3, #2007-13, and Jena Economic Research Papers, #2007-065 (pdf).
  6. Broekel, T. (2007), A Concordance between Industries and Technologies: Matching the technological fields of the Patentatlas to the German Industry Classification. Jena Economic Research Papers, #2007-041 (pdf).

Media coverage

  1. “New Economics”, Wirtschaftswoche: “Andere Idee”, 10.06.2013, Nr. 24
  2. “Heute Oper, morgen Wachstum?”, Welt am Sonntag, 26.5.2013, Nr. 21
  3. “Windräder vertreiben Urlauber”, Hannoveraner Allgemeine Zeitung, 27.8.2015, Nr. 199
  4. “Touristenschreck Windräder”, NDR 1 Niedersachsen, Regional aus dem Studio Oldenburg, Beitrag vom 31.8.2015
  5. “Studie: Windkraft hält Gäste ab”, Ostfriesen-Zeitung, 29.8.2015
  6. “Windkraft hat negativen Einfluss auf Tourismus”, Holz-Zentralblatt, 141, Nr. 37
  7. Studie zum Einfluss von Windkraftanlagen auf den Tourismus in Deutschland“, 0511/tv.lokal, h1 – Fernsehen aus Hannover”
  8. “Touristen schreckt Windkraft nicht” Energiekommune 11/2015